Rb—Sr geochronology Definition Parent—daughter ratio: The ratio of rubidium Rb to strontium Sr. The daughter nuclide Sr is represented by Sr , which is stable and not subject to radiogenic ingrowth and constitutes approximately 9. The assumption that at the time of formation of a rock, all phases therein share the same Sr isotope composition; a prerequisite for an isochron. A best-fit line of three or more phases in a Nicolaysen diagram with its slope corresponding to an age of phases that are in initial isotope equilibrium. Science, , — Precise geochronology of phoscorites and carbonatites:
Historical Geology/U-Pb, Pb-Pb, and fission track dating
Landsat Image provided by Ronald W. Lunar and Planetary Science XX, pp. Impact evidence from Massignano, Arcona. Dense fluid inclusions and their petrological significance abstract. Russian , Mineralogicheskii Zhurnal, v. International Geology Review, v.
Rubidium/Strontium Dating of Meteorites. The study of the rubidium/strontium isotopic ratios in a set of meteorite samples shows the general approach to this kind of radioactive dating. The isotope 87 Rb decays into the ground state of 87 Sr with a half-life of x .
Example[ edit ] For example, consider the case of an igneous rock such as a granite that contains several major Sr-bearing minerals including plagioclase feldspar , K-feldspar , hornblende , biotite , and muscovite. Rubidium substitutes for potassium within the lattice of minerals at a rate proportional to its concentration within the melt. The ideal scenario according to Bowen’s reaction series would see a granite melt begin crystallizing a cumulate assemblage of plagioclase and hornblende i.
This then causes orthoclase and biotite, both K rich minerals into which Rb can substitute, to precipitate. The resulting Rb-Sr ratios and Rb and Sr abundances of both the whole rocks and their component minerals will be markedly different. This, thus, allows a different rate of radiogenic Sr to evolve in the separate rocks and their component minerals as time progresses. Calculating the age[ edit ] The age of a sample is determined by analysing several minerals within the sample.
If these form a straight line then the samples are consistent, and the age probably reliable.
How Old is the Earth
Updated 8 January c Introduction In a related article on geologic ages Ages , we presented a chart with the various geologic eras and their ages. In a separate article Radiometric dating , we sketched in some technical detail how these dates are calculated using radiometric dating techniques. As we pointed out in these two articles, radiometric dates are based on known rates of radioactivity, a phenomenon that is rooted in fundamental laws of physics and follows simple mathematical formulas.
Dating schemes based on rates of radioactivity have been refined and scrutinized for several decades. The latest high-tech equipment permits reliable results to be obtained even with microscopic samples. Radiometric dating is self-checking, because the data after certain preliminary calculations are made are fitted to a straight line an “isochron” by means of standard linear regression methods of statistics.
Uses of Rb-Sr Dating Strontium Isotopegeochronology Isotope geochemistry stratigraphy Geochronology If the initial amount of Sr is known or can be extrapolated, the age can be determined by measurement of the Rb and Sr concentrations and the 87Sr/86Sr ratio.
Although they are thought to form from basinal brines, their exact origins are still unclear, partly because of the scarcity of reliable geochronological data. Rb-Sr dating of sphalerites has recently been shown to be a promising technique for the direct dating of ore minerals in MVT deposits. This paper reports the results of a reconnaissance study of sphalerites, their fluid inclusions, and associated minerals from MVT deposits of North America. Rb-Sr isotopic analyses of K-feldspar from Immel mine preclude the possibility that the Rb-Sr data reflect feldspar inclusions.
Sphalerites from the main ore zone of Daniel’s Harbour mine, New foundland, do not form a linear isochron and open behavior of the Rb-Sr system is suspected. These results are not compatible with mineralization models based on regional fluid migration related to early Tertiary Cordilleran deformation. Sphalerites from northern Arkansas have very low Rb and Sr concentrations less than 0.
The sphalerites are suspected to contain clay inclusions; and it is likely that the Sr isotopic compositions of these sphalerites, which have very low Sr concentrations, were affected by small amounts of inherited inclusions. Except for sphalerite from northern Arkansas, SEM studies and isotope dilution trace element measurements have so far failed to identify any suitable phases other than sphalerite that might be a host for the Sr.
Recent Advances in Understanding the Geology of Diamonds
Il decadimento radioattivo[ modifica modifica wikitesto ] Esempio di un decadimento radioattivo , dal Piombo Pb al Piombo Pb. Alcuni nuclidi sono instabili: Molte sostanze radioattive decadono da un isotopo fino ad un isotopo stabile figlio attraverso una serie di passaggi conosciuta come catena di decadimento. Gli isotopi utili per la datazione radiometrica sono quelli con vita media da poche migliaia di anni fino a miliardi di anni.
Precondizioni[ modifica modifica wikitesto ] Spettrometro di massa utilizzato nella datazione radiometrica.
Rubidium-strontium dating, method of estimating the age of rocks, minerals, and meteorites from measurements of the amount of the stable isotope strontium formed by the decay of the unstable isotope rubidium that was present in the rock at the time of its formation.
The Radiometric Dating Game Radiometric dating methods estimate the age of rocks using calculations based on the decay rates of radioactive elements such as uranium, strontium, and potassium. On the surface, radiometric dating methods appear to give powerful support to the statement that life has existed on the earth for hundreds of millions, even billions, of years. We are told that these methods are accurate to a few percent, and that there are many different methods. We are told that of all the radiometric dates that are measured, only a few percent are anomalous.
This gives us the impression that all but a small percentage of the dates computed by radiometric methods agree with the assumed ages of the rocks in which they are found, and that all of these various methods almost always give ages that agree with each other to within a few percentage points. Since there doesn’t seem to be any systematic error that could cause so many methods to agree with each other so often, it seems that there is no other rational conclusion than to accept these dates as accurate.
However, this causes a problem for those who believe based on the Bible that life has only existed on the earth for a few thousand years, since fossils are found in rocks that are dated to be over million years old by radiometric methods, and some fossils are found in rocks that are dated to be billions of years old. If these dates are correct, this calls the Biblical account of a recent creation of life into question. After study and discussion of this question, I now believe that the claimed accuracy of radiometric dating methods is a result of a great misunderstanding of the data, and that the various methods hardly ever agree with each other, and often do not agree with the assumed ages of the rocks in which they are found.
I believe that there is a great need for this information to be made known, so I am making this article available in the hopes that it will enlighten others who are considering these questions. Even the creationist accounts that I have read do not adequately treat these issues.
Rubidium/Strontium Dating of Meteorites
Several Christian ministries promote the idea that the earth is less than 10, years old, which they say comes from the Bible. In reality, the Bible makes no claim as to the age of the earth, although it does establish a minimum age. This page examines some of the history of the controversy—what the Bible actually says and does not say—and the scientific evidence surrounding the age of the earth. Age of the earth according to the Bible The following is a summary of the biblical evidence presented on this website regarding the age of the earth.
The oldest ages obtained from the Rb/Sr method can be taken as one indicator of the age of the earth. The isotope 87 Rb decays into the ground state of 87 Sr with a half-life of x 10 10 years and a maximum β – energy of keV.
Publication Samples of pervasively cleaved mudstones and claystones from two different parts of the Gaissa Nappe Complex in Finnmark were subjected to Rb-Sr analytical investigation with the aim of trying to dtermine the metamorphic age of the rocks in this thrust sheet. Although neither of the two groups of samples yielded atrue isochron i. This event is throuht to reflect an iverall, pervasive metamorphic imprint on the rock formations of the Gaissa Nappe Complex.
Previous radiometric dating evidence from the Gaissa Nappe Complex has given ambiguous results, some pointing to Finnmarkian Late Cambrian-Early Ordovician deformation whereas other data hace indicated a Scandian late Silurian-Early Devonian age. The Rb-Sr analytical data reported here do tend to favour a likely Finnmarkian age for the very low-grade mertamorphism; and this fits with viverse isotopic data obtained from the overlying nappe complexes, as well as with the biostratigraphic evidence where the youngest rocks in the Gaissa thrust sheet are of Early Tremadoc age.
The isochron method Many radioactive dating methods are based on minute additions of daughter products to a rock or mineral in which a considerable amount of daughter-type isotopes already exists. These isotopes did not come from radioactive decay in the system but rather formed during the original creation of the elements. In this case, it is a big advantage to present the data in a form in which the abundance of both the parent and daughter isotopes are given with respect to the abundance of the initial background daughter.
The incremental additions of the daughter type can then be viewed in proportion to the abundance of parent atoms. In mathematical terms this is achieved as follows. This term, shown in Figure 1, is called the initial ratio.
Rb–Sr dating is based on the radioactive decay of the isotope Rb (that today accounts for ~28 % of all rubidium) to Sr (~7 % of all strontium, Table 1) by beta decay, i.e., the emission of an electron. Rb decays to Sr with a half-life of approximately 49 billion years.
To conduct radioisotope dating, scientists evaluate the concentration of isotopes in a material. The number of protons in an atom determines which element it is, while the number of neutrons determines which isotope it is. For example, strontium has 38 protons and 48 neutrons, whereas strontium has 38 protons and 49 neutrons. Radioactive elements, such as rubidium but not strontium or strontium , decay over time.
By evaluating the concentrations of all of these isotopes in a rock sample, scientists can determine what its original make-up of strontium and rubidium were. Then, by assessing the isotope concentrations of rubidium and strontium, scientists can back-calculate to determine when the rock was formed. The three isotopes mentioned can be used for dating rock formations and meteorites; the method typically works best on igneous rocks.
The data from radioisotope analysis tends to be somewhat scattered. This function is able to tell researchers how old a sample is. The ratios of strontium to rubidium and strontium are thought to only be influenced by the radioactive decay of the rubidium into strontium The current model of radioisotope dating is based on that idea. And atoms of strontium can diffuse more readily than atoms of strontium or rubidium, simply because atoms of strontium are smaller.
Researchers will need to evaluate samples individually, then apply the relevant physics accordingly. The study abstract follows.